New Covenant Theology Compared with Covenantalism

Michael J. Vlach | August 25, 2009

New Covenant Theology has arisen as an alternative to Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology. It differs from Covenant Theology in denying the covenants of works, grace, and redemption, and in asserting the temporary nature of the Mosaic Law. It differs from Dispensationalism and agrees with Covenant Theology in endorsing a hermeneutical approach to the OT and the NT that abandons the historical-grammatical understanding of certain OT passages. In agreement with Covenant Theology, it also adopts supersessionist views regarding Israel and the church. The eight specific differences between New Covenant Theology (NCT) and Covenant Theology (CT) include NCT’s denial of the Covenant of Redemption, its denial of the Covenant of Works, its denial of the Covenant of Grace, its affirmation of the unity of the Mosaic Law, its affirmation of the expiration of the Mosaic Law, its teaching that Christians are under only the Law of Christ, its rejection of infant baptism, and its affirmation that the church began at Pentecost. NCT agrees with CT hermeneutically in accepting the NT logical priority over the OT and a typological interpretation of the two testaments, in holding that the NT church is the only true people of God, and in exhibiting a vagueness about the nature of the future kingdom. NCT shows some improvement over CT, but still has its own shortcomings.

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Michael J. Vlach Professor of Theology B.S., University of Nebraska-Lincoln M.Div., The Master’s Seminary Ph.D., Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary Michael J. Vlach, Ph.D. is Professor of Theology at The Master's Seminary in Sun Valley, California where he has been teaching full time since 2006. Michael has a B.S. in Business Administration from the University of Nebraska and a Master of Divinity degree from The Master's Seminary in Sun Valley, California. He also earned his Ph.D. in Systematic Theology from Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary in Wake Forest, North Carolina. Michael specializes in the areas of Systematic Theology, Historical Theology, Apologetics, and World Religions. His specific area of expertise concerns the nation Israel and issues related to refuting the doctrine of Replacement Theology. Dr. Vlach was awarded the "Franz-Delitzsch Prize 2008" for his dissertation, "The Church as a Replacement of Israel: An Analysis of Supersessionism." He is also the author of five books: Has the Church Replaced Israel?: A Theological Evaluation (B&H Academic, 2010) 20 Tips for Writing Seminary Papers (Theological Studies Press, 2010) The Church as a Replacement of Israel: An Analysis of Supersessionism (Peter Lang, 2009) Dispensationalism: Essential Beliefs and Common Myths (Theological Studies Press, 2008) Philosophy 101: The Big Idea for the 101 Most Important People and Ideas in Philosophy (Lampion Press, 2016) Dr. Vlach is also the Founder and President of, a cutting-edge website devoted to providing quality articles, news, and information related to Christian theology. Michael speaks regularly at churches and conferences and has appeared on several national radio and television broadcasts including The History Channel. Michael is also a member of the Evangelical Theological Society and has taught various courses in Theology for Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia. To learn more about Dr. Vlach visit

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